Diabetes is a disease characterized by high levels of blood glucose resulting from defects in insulin production, insulin action or both.
Obesity and type 2 diabetes are diseases that can substantially decrease life expectancy, diminish the quality of life and increase healthcare costs. The incidence of obesity and diabetes continues to rise by epidemic proportions. The term “diabesity” has been coined to describe obesity-dependent diabetes.
Body mass index has a strong relationship with diabetes and insulin resistance. In obese individuals, the amount of nonesterified fatty acids, glycerol, hormones, cytokines, proinflammatory markers, and other substances that are involved in the development of insulin resistance, is increased. The pathogenesis in the development of diabetes is based on the fact that the β-islet cells of the pancreas are impaired, causing a lack of control of blood glucose. The development of diabetes becomes more inevitable if the failure of β-islet cells of the pancreas is accompanied by insulin resistance. Weight gain and body mass are central to the formation and rising incidence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. This literature review will demonstrate the facts that link obesity with insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. In conclusion, new approaches in managing and preventing diabetes in obese individuals must be studied and investigated based on the facts.